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ONEIROID SYNDROME (oneiroid, oneiroid clouding of consciousness, dream-like clouding of consciousness) is a dream-like clouding of consciousness with an influx of fantastic visual pseudo-hallucinations. Orientation in the surrounding time is disturbed. Self-orientation is preserved. This is a deeper clouding of consciousness than delirium. It is usually observed in depression, mania and is associated with pathology of the midbrain.

Illusory images are perceived not as facts of the real world, but as phenomena belonging to other spheres inaccessible to ordinary perception (pseudo-hallucinations). Often patients mentally participate in amazing adventures, but they have the opportunity to, as it were, observe themselves from the outside. Their behavior does not in any way reflect the full richness of the fantastic events they experience. The patients' movements are manifestations of the catatonic syndrome - stereotypical swaying, mutism, negativism, waxy flexibility, impulsive actions. Sometimes the speech of patients is completely incomprehensible (discontinuous), sometimes they answer questions, and then it is possible to identify disturbances in orientation.

The formation of psychosis occurs relatively quickly, but can last for several weeks. The first signs of incipient psychosis are sleep disturbances and a growing feeling of anxiety. Concern quickly reaches the point of confusion. Vivid emotions and derealization phenomena serve as the basis for fragmentary, unsystematized delusional ideas (acute sensory delirium). The initial fear is soon replaced by an affect of bewilderment or exalted ecstasy. The patients become quiet, look around in fascination, admiring the colors and sounds. Later, catatonic stupor or agitation often develops. The duration of oneiric stupefaction varies. More often, psychosis resolves within a few weeks. The recovery from psychosis is gradual.

Occurs in severe and long-term somatic and infectious diseases. It begins with deep asthenia, then exhaustion sets in. The patient is disoriented in time, surroundings and his own personality. Voice contact is not possible. The thinking of patients is incoherent, speech is of a registering nature (consists of individual words of everyday content, syllables, inarticulate sounds pronounced quietly, loudly or in a chant with the same intonations). Perseverations are often observed. The mood of patients is changeable - sometimes depressed and anxious, sometimes slightly elevated with features of enthusiasm, sometimes indifferent.

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